In 1991, 57.6 percent of recent high school male graduates enrolled into college and 67.1 percent of recent high school female graduates enrolled into college. (2)
Ten years earlier, 54.8 percent of recent high school male graduates enrolled into college and 53.1 percent of recent high school female graduates enrolled into college. (2)
In 1997, 54.1 percent of full-time college students were women and 69.3 percent of part-time students were women. (1)
Enrollment of women has increased 44 percent in the past 20 years. (5)
By the year 2007, it is projected that women will make up 55 percent of full-time and 71 percent of part-time college students. (1)
In 1994, 6,371,900 men attended college and 7,906,900 women attended college. (2)
In 1994, 549,600 black men attended college and 898,500 black women attended college. (2)
Women earned 55. 8 percent of all degrees (associate's, bachelor's, master's, first professional, doctor's) in 1996. (16)
The percent of all degrees conferred by men has decreased from 65.8 percent in 1960 to 44.2 percent in 1996. (16)
The percent of associate's degrees awarded to women increased from 43.2 percent in 1970 to 60.4 percent in 1996. (16)
The percent of bachelor's degrees awarded to women increased from 35.2 percent in 1960 to 55.2 percent in 1996. (16)
The percent of master's degrees awarded to women increased from 32 percent in 1960 to 55.9 percent in 1996 (16)
The percent of doctor's degrees awarded to women increased from 10 percent in 1960 to 40 percent in 1996. (16)
The percent of first professional degree awarded to women increased from 3.6 percent in 1965 to 42 percent in 1996. (16)
Earning bachelor's degrees:
White women get bachelor's degrees at rates 25 percent higher than men and black women get bachelor's degrees at rates 70 percent higher than men. (3)
Women receive their bachelor's degree in four or less years at a rate 10 percent higher than men. (5)
In 1994, 652,000 women were awarded bachelor's degrees compared to 539,000 men who were were awarded bachelor's degrees. (2)
In 1992, women received 52 percent of biological science bachelor's and master's degrees, 67 percent of law bachelor's degrees, 47 percent of business bachelor's degrees, 47 percent of mathematics bachelor's degrees, and 33 percent of physical science bachelor's degrees. (6)
In 1990, 62 percent of all bachelor's degrees awarded to black students were awarded to women. (2)
Women earning bachelor's degrees by field:
Women received the majority of the degrees in 1996 in the following fields (19):
Ethnic and cultural
studies, 65.7 percent
The largest percent increases seen in the bachelor's degrees women earned between 1971 to 1996 were in the following fields (19):
natural resources, 4.2 percent to 36.8 percent
Earning graduate degrees:
In 1994, 220,000 women were awarded master's degrees and 208,000 men were awarded master's degrees. (2)
In 1995, 40 percent of doctoral degrees were awarded to women. (6)
Women earned master's degrees in 1996 at the following rates (19):
natural resources, 42 percent
Women earned doctor's degrees in 1996 at the following rates (19):
natural resources, 26.4 percent
Enrollment in doctorate programs in science and engineering:
Women almost made up the majority of science and engineering doctorate students in 1997 with an enrollment rate of 38.2 percent. (18)
Women comprised of 18.5 percent of engineering doctorate students in 1997. (18)
About 45 percent of science doctorate students in 1997 were women. (18)
Women were in 28 percent of physical sciences students, 36.2 percent of environmental sciences students, 33.7 percent of mathematical sciences students, 26.7 percent of computer sciences students, 38 percent of agricultural sciences students, 49.5 percent of biological sciences students, 69.4 of psychology students, and 48.8 percent of social sciences students in 1997. (18)
Women were the vast majority of health sciences students in 1997 with 74.8 percent of the students enrolled. (18)
Adult education courses:
About 55 percent of participants in adult education courses are women. (17)
More women than men take the course for personal and social reasons, 51 percent of women and 34 percent of men. (17)
About equal percent of women and men take the courses to train for a new job, 12 percent versus 10 percent. (17)
More men take the courses than women for an advance on the job, 60 percent versus 49 percent. (17)
About equal percentage of men and women take the courses for completing a degree or diploma, 10 percentage versus 9 percent. (17)
Taking advance high school math classes:
More girls take algebra I, geometry, algebra II, trigonometry, analysis/pre-calculus, and statistics/probability than boys. (4)
Girls are behind in calculus and AP calculus compared to boys. However, the difference between boys and girls in calculus is .3 percent and for AP calculus girls are behind .4 percent. (4)
15 years ago, girls were still ahead of boys in algebra I, geometry, and trigonometry. However girls were behind in algebra II (2.1 percent difference), analysis/pre-calculus (.6 percent difference), statistics/probability (.2 percent difference), calculus (1 percent difference), and AP calculus (.2 percent difference). (4)
Subject testing scores in primary school:
Eighth grade boys and girls in the United States had similar average scores in both mathematics and science. The scores in mathematics were 502 for boys and 497 for girls and in science they were 539 for boys and 530 for girls. (8)
Girls have consistently higher reading scores than boys at all ages; in math, 9 year- old girls and boys score similarly in math, but in later years, at 13 and 17 years old, boys scored slightly higher than girls. (9)
In fourth, eighth, and twelfth grades, girls have significantly higher reading scores than boys. While the scores of high school seniors were down overall, the decline was greater for boys than it was for girls. (10)
American College Testing (ACT):
Female high school students were the majority (57 percent) of ACT test takers in 1998. (14)
The participation of male high school students in taking ACT has decreased from 52 percent of test takers in 1970 to 43 percent in 1998. (14)
Male and female high school students have about the same scores in composite, English, math, reading and science reasoning in the years 1990 and 1994-1998. (14)
Female high school students have higher scores in reading, English and composite than male high school students in 1990 and from 1994-1998. Female scores were less than one score point higher than male scores. (14)
Female high school students had scores in math and science reasoning very comparable to male high school students. Scores by female high school students were no more 1.4 points less than male high school students in the years 1990 and 1994-1998. (14)
Advanced Placement (AP) testing of high school students:
Female students in 1998 took more AP tests than male students, 352,171 feamles versus 282,997 males. (15)
More female students took AP tests in 1998 in the following subjects: art history, art drawing, general art, biology, english language/composition, English literature/composition, environmental science, European history, French language, French literature, German language, U.S. government and politics, international English language, Latin literature, Spanish literature and U.S. history. (15)
About 12 percent less female students took the AP test in calculus AB than male students in 1998, 55,156 female test takers compared to 62,515 male test takers. (15)
About 25 percent less female students took the AP test in chemistry than male students in 1998, 19,275 female test takers compared to 25,662 male test takers. (15)
About 28 percent less female students took the AP test in microeconomics than male students in 1998, 5,546 female test takers compared 7,697 male test takers. (15)
Gifted, creative boys are often held back in the primary years because of "immaturity"--the inability to socialize with peers who are less developmentally advanced. (11)
Gifted girls outperform gifted boys in terms of grades (13)
Gender differences in technology interest are not present when boys and girls have equal levels of experience with computers. (12)
Special needs students:
72 percent special needs students in private schools are male. (7)
1- American Demographics, October 1997.
2- 116th Edition, Statistical Abstract of The United States (1996), The National Data Book of the U.S. Department of Commerce Statistics Administration.
3- U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Degrees and Other Formal Awards Conferred" surveys, and Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), "Completions" surveys. Table 259.--Bachelor's degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by racial/ethnic group and sex of student: 1976-77 to 1993-94.
4- U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "The 1994 High School Transcript Study Tabulations: Comparative Data on Credits Earned and Demographics for 1994, 1990, 1987, and 1982 High School Graduates, 1996."
5- US Census Bureau.
6- "Where Women Stand: An International Report on the Status of Women in 140 Countries 1997-1998" by Naomi Neft and Ann D. Levine.
7- Private Schools in the United States: A Statistical Profile, 1993-94/ Table 2.4, U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey: 1993-94.
8- The Condition of Education 1997, Indicator 20, International comparisons of mathematics and science performance of eighth grade students.
9- America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, Federal Interagency Forum on Child & Family Statistics, July 1997.
10- Riley "Disappointed" by Latest Reading Assessment, The 1994 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Reading: A First Look, from the Education Department's National Center for Education Statistics.
11- "How Parents Can Support Gifted Children," Linda Kreger Silverman, Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, Va.
12- Implementation Challenges and Strategies Technology and Education Reform: Technical Research Report - August 1995.
13- "Career Planning for Gifted and Talented Youth" by Barbara Kerr.
14- The ACT Inc., Iowa City, IA, High School Profile Report, annual.
15- The College Board, New York, N.Y., Advanced Placement Program, National Summary Report, 1998.
16- U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.
17- U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, 1995 National Household Education Survey.
18- U.S. National Science Foundation, Survey of Graduate Science Engineering Students and Postdoctorates, annual.
19- U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual.